Imperialism

  1. Use military, economic, political forces to gain financial from other countries
  2. Western (1400s – 20th century)
  3. By the early 1900s: 25% population of entire world land is in Europe’s power

Major Reasons/ Justifications for Imperialism:

  1. International Prestige
  2. Access to raw materials
  3. Access to new markets
  4. Philanthropy – Christian missionaries
  5. Racism

Role of Technology:

  • 1400s: Canon, Musket, Caravel
  • 1800s: Repeating rifles, machine guns, telegraph, undersea cables, steel, railroads.

The response of Non-Western societies to Imperialism:

  1. Resistant
  2. Accomodation
  3. “Westernization” examples: A/ Siam(Thailand) B/ Japan

The Role played by Imperialism within Western Societies:

  1. Justified having a large military establishment
  2. Justified having a large government bureaucracy
  3. Investment Opportunities
  4. Overseas wars allow the government to suppress internal dissent

Case studies:

  1. Africa ( 1860s – 1930s)
    Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
    – 20 major European powers
    – Protocols/ guidelines: A/ Colonized B/ Political presence
    C/ Military presence D/ Economic Presence
    => – 95% land of Africa belong to European control
    – There were 50th colonies in Africa
    Examples:
    1. The Suez Canal ( 1869)
    – 8 years by British to dig this Canal
    – British invaded Egypt (1882)
    2. The Congo:
    – 1890s, the development of automobiles demand for rubber
    – Belgium (Leopold II) invaded Congo and turned this country into giantic slavery camp.
    – 15 m people living here and 2-3m people died for producing rubber.

Western Imperialism in Africa:

  • France( 40%)
  • Germany
    A. Camaroon
    B. Togo
    C. “German South – West Africa” (Nomibia)
    D. “German East Africa” (Tanzania)
  • Spain: Morocco
  • Italy:
    A. Somalia
    B. Libya ( Tripoli)
    C. Ethiopia ( 1935)

African Resistance to Western Imperialism:

  1. AShanti           Gold Coast                        (British, 1900)
  2. Herero             German S.W. Africa       (1904 – 1906)
  3. Maji – Maji     German East Africa        (1905 – 1907)
  4. Zulu                  South Africa                     (British, 1906)
  5. Angola                                                           (Portugese, 1913)
  6. “Rif War”       Morocco                              (Spanish and French, 1911 – 1926)

Two examples:

  1. Ethiopia:
    – Italy (1890s)

    TO BE CONTINUED ……..

The Trans – Atlantic Slave Trade (1490s- 1870s)

Context: Global

  • Ancient Egypt
  • Greece
  • Roman Empire (60 million people with 25-30% slaves)
  • Serfdom ( Europe, Russia 800-1800s)

20th century:

  • Soviet Russia (Stalin) (1920s – 1950s): Slave labor system called Gulab with 1/8 population are slaves.
  • Hitler/ Nazis (12 million people slaves)

Total number Africans Brought to the Western Hemisphere:

1500s – 240,000

1600s – 1.6m

1700s – 6m

to 1870 – 1.3 m

Total: appropirately at least  9-10m/ at high 12-15m

Examples:

  • USA – 1865
  • Spanish colonies – 1870s
  • Brazil – 1888
  • Europe have “Chattel” Slavery with the meaning is personal property.

Examples:

A. Africa: it existed before Europe make slavery

  • Debt
  • Criminals

B. Mexico: Aztec

  • Own land
  • Marry free citizens
  • Children free

Two major Sources of Slavery ( ship to Western)

I. Interior:

  1. Purchase/ by trade
  2. Kidnapping

II. P.O.Ws/ War captives.

From Carribean, Slave delivered to North America ( 5%), Mexico , Central American, South America( Brazil: 3m)

Remember: “African diaspora” means it break the African population outside African continent

By 1700:

  • The ratio of males to females slavery: 2 to 1
  • Children: 10%
  • 15% died.

The Columbian Exchange

untitled-drawing

What is Columbian Exchange?

Answer:

1)The creation of colonies in the Americas that led to the exchange of new types of food, plants, and animals. 

Some backgrounds:
untitled-drawing-2
In 1453, Constantinople was captured by Tusks and they called it Istanbul. You have to know this time Constantinople is a road that connect Europe with Middle East and Asia so this place is clearly important for trading. But Tusks isolated Istanbul and they did let anyone go thorough this place
==> European has to find a new way to come to Asia.
And Because of the Technological Revolution such as:
I/ The Caravel ( developed by Portuguese  1400s):
– It is a ship
– it developed because of the background The Galley
This is a Galley (8,000 year) Untitled drawing (3).jpg

It has some problems: 1/ Lack of cargo space because it has many sailors inside.

2/ Flat- bottomed.

This is a Caravel:untitled-drawing-4

Pros of Caravel:

1/ Rounded Bottom

2/ Wind – powered

3/ Carry more cargo

4/ Half of Garley crews

5/ Travel Ocean and Sea

II/ Magnetic Compass: invented in China

III/ Astrolabe: invented by Indian.untitled-drawing-5

Note: Portuguese used Magnetic Compass and Astrolabe to determine where they are in the sea. 

Portugal (1400s)

  1. Bartholomew Diaz ( 1st expediture)
    He is the first expediture and he sailed to the edge of Africa and then come back
  2. Vasco da Gama (2nd)
    He is the second expediture and he sailed across west Africa, through Indian Ocean and landed at Goa city of India.
    This expediture took 2 years to sail to and back

Conclude:

1. Good news is European have a new route (sea route) to go to Asia

2. Bad new is the route is 4000 miles and it took 2 years

3. Portugal came to conclude Earth was sphere so if they can go east, then they can go west.

Spain:

  • Christopher Columbus – took 8 years to prepare for expendition
  • 1492, he sailed
  • After 6 weeks, they go to seagoal
  • Then he landed at Bahamas
  • Anybody in this time reads “The travel of Marco Polo”
  • He conducted 4 expenditures and go around gulf of Mexico for many times, but he could never find China, and he did not know.

Columbus: Reality Check

  • Did not cover anything
  • He “rediscover”the Western Hemisphere
  • Not Italian

The development of Spanish Empire ( 1490s- 1560s)

Spanish is proactive

Other Spanish Explorers:

  1. Balboa
  2. Magellan (1519 – 1522)
    – 5 ship
    – 250 sailors
    – 1 ship
    – 17 sailors

The Treaty of Tordasillas (1494) (Spain + Portugal)

Pope Alexander VI

Two key industries:

  1. Plantations (slave labor)
    Arabs, North Africa (1300s): encomienda: using the slave in Africa instead of Indians.
  2. Mines ( Gold, Silver, Tin, Copper)

Other European Powers:

  1. English (1600s)
    I. The South ( Geogra, North and South Carolina)
    II. Chesapeake ( Maryland, New York, Peann, Delaware, New Jersey)
    III. New England ( Mass, Plymouth, New Haven, Connecticut, Rhode Island)
  2. French
    New France ( 1608) : Quebec, Upper Midwest, Mississipi Valley, Great Lakes)

Key factors in The Spanish conquest of Mexico:

  1. Disease: Smallpox
  2. Military Technology:
    – Cannon
    – Muskets
  3. Indian allies

Spanish conquest Mexico:

1. Hernan Cortes ( 1519)

  • 600 soldiers
  • 20,000 Indian allies

    vs

Aztec:

  • 5,000,000 people
  • 30,000 troops

2. Pizarro

  • less than 2o0 soldiers
  • Took over Inca Empire (Peru now)

Other aspects of the Columbian Exchange:

Numbers:

  1. The (estimated) total population of indigineous people in the Western Hemisphere before Columbus: at a minimum 6-12m / maximum: 80-100m
  2.  How many indigenous people died? at least 10% / at high 90%

 

World History 2

My purpose for posting this information:

First, I want to post this History knowledge because I want to share with everyone has favorite in History class or are  learning in this class. Besides, I post this to help me revise the knowledge in this class and I can use my tablet to read this better.

Remember : We have a lot of ways to learn effectively.

First, focus on topical outline. We will know what we learn after this class:

Topical outline:

1/ The Commercial Revolution

2/ Mugal India

3/ Islamic Empires

4/ The Columbian Exchange

5/ The Atlantic Slave Trade

6/ The Rise of European Empires

7/ Amerindian Civilizations

8/ Imperial China and Feudal Japan

9/ The Industrial Revolution

10/ World War I

11/ Russia: From Tsarism to Stalin

12/ The Rise of Fascism

13/ The Rise of the Japanese Empire

14/  World War II

15/ The Cold War

16/ De-Colonization

17/ The Modern Middle East

18/ The Velvet Revolution and the Rise of Globalization

Note: I will write everything I learned in the class and also I will find some research outside to make this helpful to you guys.

Source: World History