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Imperialism

  1. Use military, economic, political forces to gain financial from other countries
  2. Western (1400s – 20th century)
  3. By the early 1900s: 25% population of entire world land is in Europe’s power

Major Reasons/ Justifications for Imperialism:

  1. International Prestige
  2. Access to raw materials
  3. Access to new markets
  4. Philanthropy – Christian missionaries
  5. Racism

Role of Technology:

  • 1400s: Canon, Musket, Caravel
  • 1800s: Repeating rifles, machine guns, telegraph, undersea cables, steel, railroads.

The response of Non-Western societies to Imperialism:

  1. Resistant
  2. Accomodation
  3. “Westernization” examples: A/ Siam(Thailand) B/ Japan

The Role played by Imperialism within Western Societies:

  1. Justified having a large military establishment
  2. Justified having a large government bureaucracy
  3. Investment Opportunities
  4. Overseas wars allow the government to suppress internal dissent

Case studies:

  1. Africa ( 1860s – 1930s)
    Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
    – 20 major European powers
    – Protocols/ guidelines: A/ Colonized B/ Political presence
    C/ Military presence D/ Economic Presence
    => – 95% land of Africa belong to European control
    – There were 50th colonies in Africa
    Examples:
    1. The Suez Canal ( 1869)
    – 8 years by British to dig this Canal
    – British invaded Egypt (1882)
    2. The Congo:
    – 1890s, the development of automobiles demand for rubber
    – Belgium (Leopold II) invaded Congo and turned this country into giantic slavery camp.
    – 15 m people living here and 2-3m people died for producing rubber.

Western Imperialism in Africa:

  • France( 40%)
  • Germany
    A. Camaroon
    B. Togo
    C. “German South – West Africa” (Nomibia)
    D. “German East Africa” (Tanzania)
  • Spain: Morocco
  • Italy:
    A. Somalia
    B. Libya ( Tripoli)
    C. Ethiopia ( 1935)

African Resistance to Western Imperialism:

  1. AShanti           Gold Coast                        (British, 1900)
  2. Herero             German S.W. Africa       (1904 – 1906)
  3. Maji – Maji     German East Africa        (1905 – 1907)
  4. Zulu                  South Africa                     (British, 1906)
  5. Angola                                                           (Portugese, 1913)
  6. “Rif War”       Morocco                              (Spanish and French, 1911 – 1926)

Two examples:

  1. Ethiopia:
    – Italy (1890s)

    TO BE CONTINUED ……..

The Trans – Atlantic Slave Trade (1490s- 1870s)

Context: Global

  • Ancient Egypt
  • Greece
  • Roman Empire (60 million people with 25-30% slaves)
  • Serfdom ( Europe, Russia 800-1800s)

20th century:

  • Soviet Russia (Stalin) (1920s – 1950s): Slave labor system called Gulab with 1/8 population are slaves.
  • Hitler/ Nazis (12 million people slaves)

Total number Africans Brought to the Western Hemisphere:

1500s – 240,000

1600s – 1.6m

1700s – 6m

to 1870 – 1.3 m

Total: appropirately at least  9-10m/ at high 12-15m

Examples:

  • USA – 1865
  • Spanish colonies – 1870s
  • Brazil – 1888
  • Europe have “Chattel” Slavery with the meaning is personal property.

Examples:

A. Africa: it existed before Europe make slavery

  • Debt
  • Criminals

B. Mexico: Aztec

  • Own land
  • Marry free citizens
  • Children free

Two major Sources of Slavery ( ship to Western)

I. Interior:

  1. Purchase/ by trade
  2. Kidnapping

II. P.O.Ws/ War captives.

From Carribean, Slave delivered to North America ( 5%), Mexico , Central American, South America( Brazil: 3m)

Remember: “African diaspora” means it break the African population outside African continent

By 1700:

  • The ratio of males to females slavery: 2 to 1
  • Children: 10%
  • 15% died.